This was originally designed for an RPG character, but it works just as well for novels if you just change the wording in two or three of the questions.
When I first started my novel, I spent ages looking for a quality character survey, and finally I found this one. I filled it out for my two main characters, and then the book really took off.
Word of warning: Be prepared to sit for a while! If you’re thorough, it could take you over an hour.